Multiple lines of investigation, from studies in humans and model organisms including mice, zebrafish and C. elegans have shed light on the proteins that form the MT complex and their probable roles in its function2. These include the tip link proteins, protocadherin-15 and cadherin-23, which in hair cells transduce the force derived from stereocilia displacement to the opening of the ion channel component of the MT complex3,4. TMC-1 and TMC-2 are the probable pore-forming subunits of the MT complex, candidates that first came to prominence in human genetic studies5, and gained traction more recently as the ion-conduction pathway via biophysical and biochemical investigations6,7,8. Additional proteins, some of which may be auxiliary subunits, have been associated with either the biogenesis or function of the MT complex and include TMIE9,10,11, Ca2+ and integrin binding protein 212,13,14 (CIB2), lipoma HMGIC fusion-like protein 515,16,17 (LHFPL5), transmembrane O-methyl transferase18,19 (TOMT), and possibly ankyrin13.
An ant's head contains many sensory organs. Like most insects, ants have compound eyes made from numerous tiny lenses attached together. Ant eyes are good for acute movement detection, but do not offer a high resolution image. They also have three small ocelli (simple eyes) on the top of the head that detect light levels and polarization. Compared to vertebrates, ants tend to have blurrier eyesight, particularly in smaller species, and a few subterranean taxa are completely blind. However, some ants, such as Australia's bulldog ant, have excellent vision and are capable of discriminating the distance and size of objects moving nearly a meter away.
Some ant species are considered as pests, primarily those that occur in human habitations, where their presence is often problematic. For example, the presence of ants would be undesirable in sterile places such as hospitals or kitchens. Some species or genera commonly categorized as pests include the Argentine ant, immigrant pavement ant, yellow crazy ant, banded sugar ant, pharaoh ant, red wood ant, black carpenter ant, odorous house ant, red imported fire ant, and European fire ant. Some ants will raid stored food, some will seek water sources, others may damage indoor structures, some may damage agricultural crops directly or by aiding sucking pests. Some will sting or bite. The adaptive nature of ant colonies make it nearly impossible to eliminate entire colonies and most pest management practices aim to control local populations and tend to be temporary solutions. Ant populations are managed by a combination of approaches that make use of chemical, biological, and physical methods. Chemical methods include the use of insecticidal bait which is gathered by ants as food and brought back to the nest where the poison is inadvertently spread to other colony members through trophallaxis. Management is based on the species and techniques may vary according to the location and circumstance.
Other techniques allowing access to the mesoscale involve treating macromolecules as rigid bodies. These models have provided vital information about protein diffusion , cytoplasmic crowding [5, 21], and pathways for the assembly of virus capsids , but their method of coarse-graining discounts the effects of protein deformation on diffusional dynamics, so cannot be used for highly dynamic biomolecules such as molecular motors. Until recently, there was also a paucity of experimental structural information available for biomolecular complexes at the mesoscale, due to the technical challenges involved in preserving delicate macromolecular complexes in their intact, native states. However, recent advances in biophysical tools such as cryo-electron microscopy and tomography  and super-resolution microscopy are now starting to generate a wealth of structural and dynamic information at precisely this length-scale. Integrative modelling  is an effort to characterise large macromolecular assemblies by combining complementary experimental information from multiple sources, but it does not provide a means to study protein mechanics.
The physical properties of an FFEA protein model share some similarities with Gaussian or Elastic Networks , which use a network of beads and harmonic springs to represent the structure and dynamics of proteins, and which therefore capture approximately the elastic component of the FFEA viscoelastic constitutive model. This similarity between conventional finite element analysis and network models has been studied previously . However, while many (although not all) Gaussian/Elastic Network models only include unbreakable harmonic interactions to simplify the solution of the equations of motion, within FFEA we can represent non-bonded interactions between and within individual proteins within a complex. Moreover, in FFEA the volumetric space within each finite element is filled with material, while in particle-spring models it remains empty. For very large macromolecules, especially those containing irregular shapes such as very long coiled-coil regions, it can be difficult to ensure that beads are sufficiently closely spaced within a Gaussian/Elastic network model to maintain the shape of the complex and to prevent steric overlap between the different proteins in the simulation. Continuum FFEA models also naturally include torsional rigidity, which can be particularly important to the dynamics of irregular and non-spherical proteins, and indeed such differences with Elastic Network Models have been shown in the case of Vacuolar-type ATPases .
Within the code structure, the Lennard-Jones and steric interactions are implemented as interactions between faces, not nodes. As it is a softer potential, steric repulsion is the recommended option to keep molecules from passing through one another, whether combined with Lennard-Jones interactions or not. For a system with Nf interacting faces in total, the total number of face-face interactions to be calculated in a given time-step can be reduced from to a much lower number of calculations using linked-lists . In this algorithm, the simulation box is tiled into tessellating cuboidal cells, or voxels, and each potentially interacting face is assigned to the voxel where it has its centroid, an O(Nf) operation. At every time-step, face-face interactions are calculated only for pairs assigned to the same or adjacent voxels, significantly reducing the computational cost of the face-face interactions, which are usually , whilst retaining physical accuracy. Updating this linked-list structure is performed every nnl time-steps as a background operation, using a specific task thread, and both the size of the voxels and nnl can be controlled from the input file. The voxel size should ideally be slightly larger than the interaction range, which corresponds to the desired cutoff on the Lennard-Jones potential, or roughly half of the length of the largest edge in the steric potential.
The impedance of an electrically short antenna immersed in a plasma provides an excellent in situ diagnostic tool for electron density and other plasma parameters. By electrically short we mean that the wavelength of the free-space electromagnetic wave that would be excited at the driving frequency is much longer than the physical size of the antenna. Probes using this impedance technique have had a long history with sounding rockets and satellites, stretching back to the early 1960s. This active technique could provide information on composition and temperature of plasmas for comet or planetary missions. Advantages of the impedance probe technique are discussed and two classes of instruments built and flown by SDL-USU for determining electron density (the capacitance and plasma frequency probes) are described.
In Impedance Microbiology, the time during which the measuring equipment is connected to the bipolar cells is rather long, usually between 6 to 24 hrs for microorganisms with duplication times in the order of less than one hour and concentrations ranging from 10(1) to 10(7) [CFU/ml]. Under these conditions, the electrode-electrolyte interface impedance may show a slow drift of about 2%/hr. By and large, growth curves superimposed on such drift do not stabilize, are less reproducible, and keep on distorting all over the measurement of the temporal reactive or resistive records due to interface changes, in turn originated in bacterial activity. This problem has been found when growth curves were obtained by means of impedance analyzers or with impedance bridges using different types of operational amplifiers. Suspecting that the input circuitry was the culprit of the deleterious effect, we used for that matter (a) ultra-low bias current amplifiers, (b) isolating relays for the selection of cells, and (c) a shorter connection time, so that the relays were maintained opened after the readings, to bring down such spurious drift to a negligible value. Bacterial growth curves were obtained in order to test their quality. It was demonstrated that the drift decreases ten fold when the circuit remained connected to the cell for a short time between measurements, so that the distortion became truly negligible. Improvement due to better-input amplifiers was not as good as by reducing the connection time. Moreover, temperature effects were insignificant with a regulation of +/- 0.2 [ degrees C]. Frequency did not influence either. The drift originated either at the dc input bias offset current (Ios) of the integrated circuits, or in discrete transistors connected directly to the electrodes immersed in the cells, depending on the particular circuit arrangement. Reduction of the connection time was the best countermeasure.
An impedance measurement system with probe signal frequencies up to 50 kHz with AC-probe voltages below 30 mV rms was integrated for wireless and battery-free monitoring of microbiological cell cultures. The here presented modular design and the use of state-of-the-art components greatly eases adoptions to a wide range of biotechnological applications without the need of bulky LCR-meters or potentiostats. The device had a power consumption of less than 2.5 mA at a 3.3 V single power supply and worked trouble-free within the humid environment of a cell culture incubator. Measurements on lumped RC-elements showed an error of less than 1% for absolute values and less than 1° regarding the phase of the complex impedance. The performance of sensor devices with interdigitated electrode structures for the measurement of adherent cell cultures was tested in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline solution in the humid atmosphere of an incubator for biological cell cultures. 2b1af7f3a8