A thematic content analysis yielded four core themes: (1) educational impact, (2) time management, (3) challenges encountered, and (4) preferences for the future. The online modality was well-received, and all participants agreed that online sessions were time saving and that their performance was improved due to enhanced utility of time; however, they indicated that they encountered some challenges, including methodological, content perception, technical, and behavioral challenges during sessions and online exams. Most of the preclinical students preferred online learning for the upcoming academic years.
Participants generally referred to the theme of time management as a dominant perspective, and they all agreed that online sessions saved time for them and that their performance had improved as a result. This is made evident in the following statements:
Our study concludes that synchronized online learning was well-received by the medical students. At the same time, some challenges for our study participants included technical issues, individual behavioral characteristics, institutional methodology barriers, and the absence of non-verbal clues. Moreover, preclinical students were more likely to opt for online lectures as their preference for the next academic year compared to clinical students.
First-time managers must learn to be leaders while still being productive employees themselves. New skills needed include time management, stress management, relationship management, and industry-specific expertise.
The lead researcher listened to the interviews several times to obtain a general idea of the data. Ambiguities were resolved by checking the transcripts with the participants immediately after the interview or on the spot during the interview. The units of meaning that were directly related to the research question were then highlighted and selected. Subsequent analysis was performed according to Graneheim and Lundman . As in other qualitative research, data collection and analysis were performed simultaneously during the study period. To identify similarities and differences, read and compared the initial codes several times. Each interview was carried out by the first author in Persian, and was literally transcribed. As a result, categories and subcategories were defined around abstract concepts related to challenges and opportunities in medical education.
Infrastructural deficits and problems were major challenges to e-learning, and this was frequently mentioned by participants. They reported unpleasant experiences with slow internet speeds, uploading materials and files on e-learning systems, and downloading them. For example, one of the interviewees said (S5):
Virtual evaluation is a new phenomenon in the university. Before the pandemic, virtual evaluation was not common at the university, nor was the evaluation infrastructure and processes provided. Therefore, virtual evaluation faced major challenges, so that the validity and reliability of its results were sometimes controversial. Therefore, the participants believed that in order to evaluate students, professors should evaluate them during the semester and, if necessary, organize face-to-face tests at the end of the semester, while following social distancing, or to use virtual testing tools with high taxonomy to reduce cheating.
A study by Dyrbye et al. found that students preferred e-learning formats because of their flexibility and because they facilitated learning by providing opportunities for reflection on the course material . A useful learning system can help students to manage and control their learning processes. For example, students can download and study learning materials in their own time and at their own pace. Even if students miss face-to-face classes, they can catch up on the course content online. Some studies found that when students were able to take more individual control over their learning, they achieved better learning results. This outcome suggests that an e-learning system may help students by increasing their control over their learning processes [36, 37].
One of the biggest concerns of participants was to create effective interactions for maximum learning. Interviewees said that they did not have enough time for interaction and participation. In some courses, especially clinical and bedside education ones, a focus solely on e-learning was not considered effective or appropriate. Some studies have shown that e-learning can pose challenges to face-to-face interaction and participation. The lack of face-to-face interaction can be a barrier to building relationships, which can in turn lead to negative impacts on learning, performing educational tasks, and satisfaction [25, 35]. A study by Dyrbye et al.  showed that students needed immediate, real-time feedback from faculty members to confirm their perceptions and provide feedback on their efforts.
Fun Time Management Activities for Students: In this post, we will share the best tips to develop good time management skills. These tips can help high school students, college students, and even adults! We will also explore popular productivity techniques and suggest different types of time management activities for kids. Finally, you will be able to download a free PDF that includes the best tips and a daily planner.
Time management is the ability to structure, organize and control our time based on our goals, allowing for flexibility to adapt to the changes in our environment while still protecting our priorities.
As they remove ribbons from the originally long string, the kids will start to see the limited time they actually have. This is why time management is so important, and will help them learn the value of their daily actions.
Overcooked is a popular game that can serve as a time management activity for kids. This online game is can help instill the value of time management in a fun way. Using the career as a restaurant manager, each player has to serve, cook, and run a restaurant efficiently.
Health systems are complex and continually changing across a variety of contexts and health service levels. The capacities needed by health managers and leaders to respond to current and emerging issues are not yet well understood. Studies to date have been country-specific and have not integrated different international and multi-level insights. This review examines the current and emerging challenges for health leadership and workforce management in diverse contexts and health systems at three structural levels, from the overarching macro (international, national) context to the meso context of organisations through to the micro context of individual healthcare managers.
Sixty-three articles were included. A set of consistent challenges and emerging trends within healthcare sectors internationally for health leadership and management were represented at the three structural levels. At the macro level these included societal, demographic, historical and cultural factors; at the meso level, human resource management challenges, changing structures and performance measures and intensified management; and at the micro level shifting roles and expectations in the workplace for health care managers.
Contemporary challenges and emerging needs of the global health management workforce orient around efficiency-saving, change and human resource management. The role of health managers is evolving and expanding to meet these new priorities. Ensuring contemporary health leaders and managers have the capabilities to respond to the current landscape is critical.
Along with health systems, the role of leaders and managers in health is evolving. Strategic management that is responsive to political, technological, societal and economic change is essential for health system strengthening . Despite the pivotal role of health service management in the health sector, the priorities for health service management in the global health context are not well understood. This rapid review was conducted to identify the current challenges and priorities for health leadership and workforce management globally.
A set of challenges and emerging trends were identified across healthcare sectors internationally. These were grouped at three levels: 1) macro, system context (society, demography, technology, political economy, legal framework, history, culture), 2) meso, organisational context (infrastructure, resources, governance, clinical processes, management processes, suppliers, patients), and 3) micro context related to the individual healthcare manager (Table 3). This multi-levelled approach has been used in previous research to demonstrate the interplay between different factors across different levels, and their direct and indirect reciprocal influences on healthcare management policies and practices .
Understanding how the features of the macro, meso and micro systems can create challenges for managers is critical . With continual healthcare reform and increasing health expenditure as a proportion of GDP, distinct challenges are facing high-income Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, middle-income rapidly-developing economies, and low-income, resource-limited countries. Reforms, especially in OECD countries, have been aimed at controlling costs, consolidating hospitals for greater efficiencies, and reconfiguring primary healthcare [1, 76]. The changing business models for the delivery of care have wider implications for the way in which health managers conceptualise healthcare delivery and the key stakeholders , for example, the emerging role of private healthcare providers and non-health actors in public health. Changes to the business model of healthcare delivery also has implications for the distribution of power amongst key actors within the system. This is evident in the evolved role of general practitioners (GPs) in the UK National Health Service as leaders of Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). Commissioning requires a different skill set to clinical work, in terms of assessing financial data, the nature of statutory responsibilities, and the need to engage with a wider stakeholder group across a region to plan services . With new responsibilities, GPs have been required to quickly equip themselves with new management capabilities, reflecting the range of studies included in this review around clinician managers and the associated challenges [18, 28, 53, 63, 70, 71, 74, 75]. 2b1af7f3a8